- Testimony - The foundation for all other beliefs in Islam, to convert to Islam, one is required to recite the creed " ašhadu 'al-lā ilāha illā-llāhu wa 'ašhadu 'anna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh", or "I testify that there is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God." 
- Prayer - Muslims must perform 5 prayers a day to focus their mind on God with gratitude and worship. There is some flexibility in how these prayers are recited, though they mostly consists of verses from the Qur'an. The prayers are performed with the chest pointed toward the Kaaba (Cube) in the Sacred Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Prayers can be performed anywhere, including Mosques, which are the community centers and prayer-houses (like churches) of Islam.
- Alms-giving - Considered a religious obligation, non-poor Muslims must give 2.5% of their capital per year for "bringing hearts together, freeing captives, for those in debt or bonded labor. and for the (stranded) traveler." Known as Zakat, this collective monetary contribution is estimated at about 15 times global humanitarian aid contributions per year. 
- Fasting - During Ramadhan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, Muslims abstain from food and drink from dawn until dusk and focus on their dependence on God, atonement for their sins, and the needy.
- Pilgrimage - Known as the Hajj, this pilgrimage to the city of Mecca is done in the 12th month of the Islamic calendar. Every Muslim physically and monetarily capable must make the pilgrimage once in their lifetime.
Another by the same author as a Very Short Introduction. This one focuses more on understanding the life of Muhammad.
If you want to get a book to fully understand this religion, its followers, and its history, this is the one.
An incredible Muslim poet, Rumi will give anyone fresh and peaceful eyes through which to see this religion.
- "Christianity 2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact" (PDF). gordonconwell.edu. January 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-29
- What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam:Second Edition: Second Edition By John L. Esposito Page 130
- N Mohammad (1985), The doctrine of jihad: An introduction, Journal of Law and Religion, 3(2): 381-397
- Qurʼan, Surat al-Tawbah 9:60 "Zakat expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect (Zakat) and for bringing hearts together and for freeing captives and for those in debt (orbonded labour) and for the cause of Allah and for the (stranded) traveller - an obligation (imposed) by Allah . And Allah is Knowing and Wise."