Existentialism

The dictionary defines Existentialism as "a philosophical theory or approach that emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will."
 
Does that sound vague and open-ended? Well, in true philosophical form, that's because it is.
Our hope is that by the end of this page, you will have an understanding of existentialism that is both wide and narrow, equal parts open and precise. We will pinpoint what existentialism is, in its usage and history, and we will discuss what it is not. Perhaps by the end you will consider yourself an existentialist. Certainly by the end you will understand what existentialism means.
 
Existentialists share the attitude of a sense of disorientation, confusion, or dread in the face of an apparently meaningless or absurd world. (1)
The highest virtue of the existentialist is authenticity, with this absurd state of existence taken as granted in one's thoughts and actions. Many existentialists also regard traditional systematic or academic philosophies, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience. (2)
 
Historically speaking, Existentialism refers broadly to the work of some philosophers between the mid 1800's and 1900's who share a common belief of thinking that all life, thought, experience, and most importantly action, begins with the individual.
Though he never used the term himself, Kierkegaard is generally considered as the first existentialist philosopher. He denounced the established church and rejected the then-popular German idealism as too derived from thought and ideas...constructs, as opposed to something perceived by the senses. To Kierkegaard, an individual's most basic experiential sensations were closer to truth, and social ideals were more like deviations from the real.
In true resonance with this website's core assumption, Kierkegaard asserted that each individual, not society or religion, is solely responsible for giving meaning to life and living it authentically. (3)
 
Then, in the late 1800's, came Friedrich Nietzsche, who idealized the individual who invents their own values and creates the very terms they excel under. Nietzsche was particularly critical of religion, especially his culturally relevant Christianity, and claimed that the "Death of God" (the death of the concept of God) would eventually lead to the loss of any universal perspective or objective truth. (4)
Nietzsche was a strong proponent of perspectivism, an idea that rejects an objective reality in lieu of "reality" being amorphous, subject to the individual's perspective and interests. Because of this, he believed rules (outspoken and implied, religious and scientific, even philosophical) are in constant need of reassessment. Nietzsche believed that no human value-system was greater than any other. Rather, he believe the value was in the willing itself of those systems. The values of a person or community are not as important as the individual collective will to see those values come to pass.
 
Nietzsche is largely considered the figurehead of Nihilism.
Nihilism (sometimes used vaguely) or "Existential Nihilism" (more concrete in its meaning), asserts that life has no intrinsic meaning or value. Unlike Existentialism, where one can potentially create their own subjective "meaning" or "purpose" through their free will, Existential Nihilism posits that even though we are compelled to invent meaning we are barred from knowing "why". We as individuals are born into the universe isolated, and all notions of "meaning" and "purpose" are futile.
This may sound Pessimistic, and that's because it is. While Nietzsche spoke often of Nihilism, he might not have considered himself as an actual Nihilist, as he found pessimism to be not an ends but a solace, and a means to "good health" as a "remedy and an aid in the service of growing and struggling life". (5)
I think Nietzsche could most reliably be considered an Absurdist, living defiantly and authentically in spite of the paradox of the Absurd.
 
Some other key members of Existentialist philosophy are Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Albert Camus. Follow their link to learn more about these flavorful philosophers.
 
Viewed in loosest terms, Existentialism is a removal of the thought that truth and meaning are inherent in the world. So many people throughout history were raised under strict religious dogmas, or heavily involved church occupation in their personal lives. We see this less so now, and so many people consider existentialism to be a characteristic philosophical move of society into the modern age. Most Atheists and Agnostics would consider themselves to be a form of existentialist. However, an existentialist is not necessarily an Atheist or Agnostic (take some SBNR for example).
Many see existentialism's role in society as freeing. While happiness and satisfaction may be another point for debate, this seems accurate. Existentialism places a lot of emphasis on the freedom of the individual. The goal in existentialism of living "authentically" comes down to how one responds in their attitude and actions to the freedom from constructs and norms, myths around value and meaning. Rather that search relentlessly for meaning or choose by faith a doctrine of meaning, one could say existentialism is a tool for opening the human mind to instead create meaning for itself.

Links

History of Existentialism from tiki-toki: A well-made and fairly complete interactive time-line. Absolutely worth at least a quick scroll, with in-depth reading possible as well.
thecry.com/existentialism: a page similar to this one here, but with more detail and links about Sartre, Dostoevsky, Heidegger, and many of the other great philosophers of existentialism
mythosandlogos.com: a very comprehensive resource on Existential-Phenomenology, formatted into a list and essays of "The Thinkers" behind Existentialism
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on Existentialism: reads like the wikipedia article, more longer with more depth and detail. More long-form
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: If Wikipedia were a 3 on a 1-10 scale of length and depth, Stanford's encyclopedia would be a 6 and this would be an 8. :)
Sadler's Online Existentialism Resources: another list like this one, probably containing other lists like this one. See how deep the rabbit hole goes!
Top 10 Existential Psychology Website: a site list for learning about existential psychology.
No Excuses: Existentialism and the Meaning of Life: thegreatcourses.com is a wonderful site for learning. Here is a course that gives history but focus on the practical side of existentialism.
WNYC on Existentialism: a wonderful series of interviews and radio shorts on the subject.
Wikihow: how to Deal with an Existential Crisis: It seems funny at first, but then becomes surprisingly practical.
existentialcomics.com: hilarious philosophy comics
thecreatorsproject.vice.com: One could argue that appreciation and creation of art is an essential side of existentialist thought. An offshoot of vice news, this focus on art, futurism, and creativity will give you a window into the authentic actions of world-changers. Very inspiring.

Books

We've been linking to books from the Very Short Introduction series a lot, because they're concise, informative, and read so well!

A complex read that begs you to swim among the difficult questions of existence, this is a landmark work in existentialism.

Focusing on Nietzsche, Sartre, Kierkegaard, and Heidegger, this landmark 1962 book is perhaps most responsible for bringing existentialism into the public eye.

Unsettling and undeniably compelling, one of Nietzsche's most famous works will expose faith and morality as constructs for the reader. Prepare to look into the abyss.


A book comprehensive not in just its review of Existentialism with its definition and history, but for its application, influence, and future implications as well.

His other most famous book, here Nietzsche displays his idea of the ultimately free human, an ironic embodiment of divinity.

A bit of an aside from the existentialist literature here...or is it? This book will test your intelligence and make you question aspects of nature that repeat themselves in mysterious ways, Perhaps meaning itself is more than the sum of its meaningless parts.

A book that will connect the modern human with the real meaning behind this concept that everyone hears about. It will especially tie a connection to modern culture, art, and thought.


Winner of the Pulitzer prize in 1974. While not a philosophical work on existentialism, this could be called a practical sociological application of existentialism and its interplay with humanity's dealings with mortality.

A recent publication that will help you see that your actions are important only to you. There's nothing to humble one's notions of meaning like a comparison with the cosmos.


Videos

What is Existentialism: A very short and basic run-down of what it is. ~3.5 min
Another What is Existentialism: Here is a longer explanation, with the added option of following this author's video series for more detail. ~20min
What is an Existential Crisis: maybe you're dealing with one now. Yes, you probably are. Check out this video and you may better understand what you're going through. ~5min
Gregory B Sadler's full course: a site with a list of lectures. It's just like sitting down in a college philosophy class!
Crash Course on Existentialism: Crash Course is one of the best series of videos online. Here is their fast-past, informative video on Existentialism. ~9min
How We Lie to Ourselves: While not specifically about existentialism, you could say that lying to oneself is a fundamentally non-existential exercise that we all employ in order to avoid the Absurd. This video lists some common diversions that we create to avoid truths, even the lack of truth. ~6min
Introduction to Nihilism: A quite comprehensive and informative youtube lecture on Nihilism. ~14min
Albert Camus: Focus your learning on Absurdism with this School of Life video on the famous Existentialist/Absurdist. ~10 min
The Muppets on Phenomenology: Someone took the "Manamana" song and gave it subtitles to explain phenomenology. Wonderful. ~3min
Koi Fresco on Existentialism: want to hear a young hippie explain existentialism to the sound of dubstep and sacred geometric visuals? Well, here you go. Enjoy it like Burning Man. ~9min
Waking Life: A wonderful film by Richard Linklater that touches on subjects of Existentialism and begs the question "Is life just a dream?" ~1hr 40min
Existentialism explained to 5-year olds: A quick laugh, where adults convince kids to do what they want in the name of Nietzsche. ~3.5min
Nothing: What could be more fitting for Nihilism than a video that begs explanation and asserts that none is possible?

References:
  1. Robert C. Solomon, Existentialism (McGraw-Hill, 1974, pp. 1–2).
  2. Ernst Breisach, Introduction to Modern Existentialism, New York (1962), p. 5.
  3. Watts, Michael. Kierkegaard (Oneworld, 2003, pp. 4–6).
  4. Lampert 1986, pp. 17–18.
  5. Dienstag 2009, p. 199