Gratitude Types of Gratitude Attitude of Gratitude Notice Feel Think Do Science of Gratitude Illusions of Gratitude The Gist Gratitude Practice & Exercises Gratitude Resources

Gratitude is a spectrum containing types and levels of practice and manifestation. The variability can make gratitude hard to define because it often shows up differently for different people and in different situations. Each individual will have a different experience of gratitude, depending on circumstances. Understanding how you express and experience gratitude can help expand your practice and provide tools for cultivating an attitude of gratitude.

How do you express gratitude?
How do you like gratitude expressed to you?
What other ways are out there for you to explore and expand your practice?
How does your culture/background affect how you relate to gratitude?

Are you a grateful person? Take the quiz!

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“Two kinds of gratitude: The sudden kind we feel for what we take; the larger kind we feel for what we give.” – Edwin Arlington Robinson

Feeling Grateful vs. Being Grateful

Gratitude can be hard to comprehend because it is simultaneously a feeling, a virtue, a behavior, and an attitude/way of being.

Why make the distinction?
When thinking about the question: are you a grateful person? Are you considering if you are feeling grateful or if you are being grateful?
In developing a gratitude practice, it can be useful to notice how often you feel grateful and how often you express gratitude, to guide your exploration process.

Ready to jump into a specific section?
For more on gratitude as a feeling, see here.
For more on gratitude as a virtue, see here.
For more on gratitude as a behavior, continue reading this page and see here for more.
For more on gratitude as a way of being, continue reading this page and see here for more.

Expressions of Gratitude Show Up in Three Ways…

Like the way we express love (explore Love Languages), each person has a distinctive way of expressing gratitude and a distinctive preference for receiving gratitude. Some people feel more comfortable giving concrete representations of gratitude like gifts, others are better with words. Exploring a different method of expressing gratitude can provide a different experience toward gratitude and connect more with those around you.

Verbal Gratitude

“Saying” thank you in some way is considered verbal gratitude. Verbal gratitude can be spoken directly to the person, handwritten in a thank you card, sent in an email or text, or communicated in another way.

Expressing verbal gratitude is probably the easiest way to express since it requires little time or money investment and can happen immediately. Below, explore some ways to express genuine verbal gratitude.

“Thank You” Backfires When Used in This Way
BrainCraft asks: is there such a thing as too much gratitude? And can gratitude ever do more harm than good? Research has found when gratitude is perceived as insincere, the gratitude expressed has no effect on the receiver, or actually has a negative effect.

Make your gratitude more sincere by:

  • Showing understanding and empathy.
  • Valuing people’s opinions and abilities.
  • Using language that praises others rather than focusing on yourself.

Expressing Appreciation: Kate MacAleavey at TEDxClaremontColleges
Appreciation is one of the most desired psychological variables in work and in everyday life.

Show genuine appreciation by:

  • Having a face to face interaction and verbally expressing appreciation.
  • Writing a thank you note.
  • Writing a letter to someone, which can go deeper than a quick thank you note.

Putting the “You” in Thank You, with Dr. Sara Algoe
Gratitude stands out above other positive psychology practices because we are able to bring other people into our expressions and associate something someone else did for us with the feelings we are experiencing.

There are two parts to feeling and expressing gratitude:

  • How the gift action benefits the receiver
  • How the giver did something praiseworthy.

Dr. Algoe says genuine expressions of gratitude acknowledge the part the giver had in the interaction rather than just the benefits the receiver feels.

Quick List: How to say “Thank You” in common situations

Thank you for a gift:

  • Thank you for the _____, I can’t wait to use it this week.
  • ___ is exactly what I have been looking for, thank you for getting it for me.
  • I know you spent a lot of time picking it out for me. I’m grateful to have such a thoughtful friend.
  • Thank you for thinking of me.
  • You brightened my day with your gift, thank you!

Thank you for a kind deed:

  • Thank you for always stepping in when I need you most.
  • Thank you for taking the time to help me, it really meant a lot.
  • I really appreciate what you did.
  • Thank you for your help, I couldn’t have done it without you.
  • Thank you for meeting my need for ease tonight and taking your time to _____ for us.
  • I appreciate you learning new things and developing your ____ skills.

Thank you for being a friend:

  • I’m so grateful to have a friend like you in my life.
  • I don’t say it enough: thank you for being there for me.
  • Thank you for all your advice, I don’t know where I would be without you.
  • I value and respect your opinion, thank you for sharing with me.
  • Thank you for being brave and opening up to me.
  • Thank you for reaching out, it was really nice to hear from you.

Thank you to a significant other:

  • I appreciate all you do for me.
  • I’m grateful every time I wake up with you.
  • Thank you for supporting my dreams.
  • I appreciate how you are constantly working to improve our relationship and help love grow.
  • Thank you for trusting me.

Thank you to a boss or colleague:

  • Thank you for meeting with me today.
  • I appreciate your help on ___.
  • Thank you for sharing your feedback with me.
  • I appreciate your dedication to our team.
  • I am grateful to be on such a hardworking team.
  • Thank you for your time today.
  • I appreciate you going above and beyond.

When offering verbal gratitude, specificity can help with authenticity. Try this formula:

This is what you did;
This is what I feel;
This is my need (desire/value/super important thing I needed help with) that was met.

By structuring your appreciation in such a way, you are offering a bigger opportunity for connection between yourself and the receiver.

For more on saying ‘thank you’ see: Practice and Exercises or the DO page.

Ideas for saying thank you without saying it:

Low Effort

  • Write a thank you card and mail it.
  • Include a line saying thank you in an email you are sending.
  • Send an appreciative text out of the blue.
  • Create an appreciation post on social media.
  • Send a meme or gif saying thank you.
  • Put a sticky note on an office or bedroom door with 3 things you appreciate about the person.
  • Play a thank you song when you are with the person like:

Led Zeppelin – Thank You
Thank You Girl – The Beatles

Medium Effort

  • Make a sign (see below).
  • Take a video of yourself expressing your appreciation.
  • Write in chalk on the driveway or sidewalk
  • Turn a memorable photo into a postcard and mail it to a friend with a note of thanks.
  • Make a collage of thanks and give it to the person/ organization you are grateful for.
  • Nominate someone you appreciate for a special award.
  • If the person speaks a different language, learn how to express your gratitude in that language and tell them.

High Effort

  • Create a scavenger hunt with a series of thank you cards or letters.
  • Write a letter, then visit the person and read them your letter.
  • Write a song of thanks and make a music video (example).
  • Write down messages of gratitude to a specific person. Collect all the messages and put them in a notebook, scrapbook, or box and give it to the person as a special gift.
  • Display your gratitude for someone on a billboard or the screen at a sporting event.
  • Use drones to spell out a message in the sky (example).
  • Create a corn maze with a secret message of thanks when you look at it from above (example).

Verbal gratitude does not need to be directed at someone else. You can practice verbal gratitude on your own—for example through a gratitude journal or social media post. Saying ‘I’m grateful for the weather ‘ doesn’t assign accountability or thank anyone specifically, but still counts as an expression of gratitude.

For more on gratitude journals, see here.

Examples of verbal gratitude to inspire you!

Teacher Appreciation
Microsoft created a video to bring together 6 young poets from across the globe to help say thank you to teachers everywhere.

Ellen’s Tribute to the Obamas
Ellen DeGeneres says ‘thank you’ to President Obama by creating a tribute video of his time in office.

What Happened When Teachers Found Out How Students Felt About Them
People think they are describing the impact a special teacher had on them — until they find out the teacher is standing behind the camera!

Concrete Gratitude

Gifts (tangible items beyond a written note) can be concrete representations of gratitude. In Western culture, gift giving is often an expression of caring and love towards another person. While some holidays and celebrations have customary gift giving expectations (Christmas, anniversaries, birthdays, weddings, etc…) spontaneous and out of the blue gifts can be a meaningful way to express gratitude and love.

By turning a feeling of gratitude into something tangible, it can be more validating for the receiver and therefore come off as more sincere than simply saying or writing thank you. In expressing gratitude with a gift, we are saying: “the thing you did for me was highly valuable, so I went out of my way to get you something to say thank you” which is very affirming.

In some cultures, gifts are more widely customary than others. Some cultures offer gifts to higher powers as a way of expressing gratitude and keeping them in good favor (see below for cultural differences in gratitude).

However, not all concrete expressions of gratitude need to be serious, they can offer little ways to thank someone:
Thank Someone for Thanking you…
“Gwendolyn: here’s some champagne for you for thanking me for thanking you for thanking me for thanking you for thanking me for the champagne you sent me.”

Ideas for expressing concrete gratitude:


Chocolate / Candy


Cooking or Buying a Meal

Wine / Beer / Drinks


Baked Goods


Thank You Chocolate Box

Wedding/Party Favors

Gift Baskets








Three examples where concrete actions speak louder than words:

  • Waitress – Writing “Thank you for the excellent service” on the receipt
    vs: Leaving a 20%+ tip.
  • Significant Other – Saying “I appreciate all you do”
    vs: Surprising them with a home-cooked meal you prepared for them after they were at work all day.
  • Employee – Telling them “I appreciate your hard work, you are really a leader on our team.”
    vs: Giving them a raise or better accounts for their hard work.

Connective Gratitude

When a gift is non-tangible, it falls into the category of connective gratitude. Expressing connective gratitude offers something the receiver needs, like support or help.

Usually, connective gratitude has a time commitment involved instead of giving a concrete gift.

Connective gratitude can be the most genuine because it involves reflecting on what the receiver really wants or needs and acting upon that.

Examples of connective gratitude:

Acts of Service

  • Helping a friend move
  • Giving a ride
  • Lending tools
  • Babysitting or pet sitting
  • Cooking* or cleaning
  • Offering skills like building or plumbing
  • Setting up a special experience like a bubble bath or picnic

Acts of Support

  • Physical touch (hugs, massage)
  • Listening
  • Playing a game
  • Quality time
  • Extending Friendship
  • Going for a walk and chatting
  • Planning a trip or scheduling an activity (not necessarily paying for it)

*The line between concrete and connective gratitude can be a gray area, for example cooking someone a meal could be an act of service or a tangible item, so some things could fall into both categories.

Cultural Differences and Gratitude

Culture and background can play a huge role in how one experiences and expresses gratitude because scientists believe the development of gratitude starts in childhood (Smith, et al., 2020).

With gratitude being a fairly new science, the majority of studies have been conducted at American universities, providing a small sample size. However, in 2017, a group of researchers conducted a study of children in Brazil, China, Guatemala, Russia, South Korea, Turkey, and the United States to assess expressions of gratitude and the similarities and differences across cultures (Mendonça, et al., 2018).

Overall, the study found:

  • Children from Russia, Turkey, China, and South Korea favored expressing with connective gratitude.
  • Children from Brazil and the United States favored using concrete gratitude.
  • Children from Guatemala used high rates of verbal gratitude.

Western cultures say ‘thank you’ regularly out of politeness—more so than in African and Asian cultures. One study found English speakers and Italian speakers were 10% more likely to say thank you after an interaction than the other 6 languages sampled (Floyd, et al., 2018). The study suggests English and Italian speakers are more likely to say thank you automatically in everyday situations whereas other cultures have a tacit understanding of gratitude and rarely say thank you to family, friends, or community members.

In an article for The Atlantic, author Deepak Singh explains in Hindu culture, there is an unspoken understanding of gratitude and saying thank you is reserved for formal interactions with strangers who do a huge favor to you. To say thank you to a close friend or family member would be disrespectful, since there is already an unspoken understanding of reciprocity and helping each other (Singh 2015).

In a 2017 study, researchers found when Asian-American or Indian participants read their gratitude letters to their loved ones, the loved ones were actually insulted, because in their cultures, generosity is implied and not something that requires thanks. The study concluded that the participants who wrote letters experienced a feeling of gratitude but not a difference in optimism (compared to the control group), which may have been fueled by feelings of guilt associated with saying “thank you” in their cultures. ”Gratitude makes them feel good, but also sad and guilty (Titova et al., 2017).”

DOES EVERY LANGUAGE SAY THANK YOU? || Gratitude Across Cultures, Power Distance, and Friendships
Cultural norms surrounding gratitude and appreciation and how you thank people for what and when really differs from language to language. Kritika explains cultural norms and common phrases in Hindi, Japanese, and English and the cultural differences around saying ‘thank you.’

Gratitude Celebrations Around the World

Around the world, some cultures celebrate and give thanks to higher powers for the harvest, good fortune, and prosperity.

In Bali, Hindus give an offering of canang sari to the Gods as a daily practice of gratitude for prosperity and peace within the world.

Many countries hold annual festivals or holidays celebrating gratitude and giving thanks.

Non-Religious Traditions:

Traditions giving thanks to a higher power:

The Main Types of Gratitude

Each type is also explained in further detail on subpages. Explore the subpages to delve deeper into how that type shows up in life and how to further cultivate it.

Attitude of Gratitude

At its core, gratitude is a constant practice. Practicing with an “attitude of gratitude” is a way of being where gratitude is second nature. Swimming in the sea of gratitude, an attitude of gratitude is the natural buoyancy that makes swimming effortless and enjoyable.

3 Attitudes of Gratitude

  • Christina Costa – When psychology instructor and researcher Christina Costa was diagnosed with brain cancer, she was introduced to the fight narrative. “You’re a fighter.” “Keep fighting.” “Beat this tumor.” She decided war wasn’t for her, and her body was not a battlefield, so instead of fighting her brain, she kissed her brain and developed an attitude of gratitude. Her PhD in Positive Psychology helped her develop practices throughout her treatment to build gratitude.
    See Costa’s TED talk here
  • Hailey Bartholomew – In 2008, Hailey was depressed and feeling blah about life. She found herself struggling to find joy in life despite her two kids and loving partner. A therapist suggested she try a gratitude practice. Everyday for 10 days she spent some time reflecting on her day and she started noticing more and more things in her life she was grateful for. After the 10 days, Hailey knew she needed more, so she started a year long project of taking a polaroid each day of something she was grateful for. The shift in her attitude transformed her life. She started thinking each day about what she had to be grateful for. Now, she continues her attitude of gratitude and helps others share their stories as well.
    See Hailey’s TED talk here
    Check out Hailey’s website filled with stories here
  • Nick Vujicic – Nick is an Australian-American born without arms or legs who has become a world-renowned speaker, New York Times best-selling author, coach and entrepreneur. His early life was challenging, but as he got older he discovered one of the keys to thriving is thankfulness.
    See his motivational speech to students about gratitude here

ATTITUDE OF GRATITUDE is less of a way to express gratitude than a way of being: in embodying the other types of gratitude one learns to live a life of thankfulness.

“Being thankful is not always experienced as a natural state of existence, we must work at it, akin to a type of strength training for the heart.” — Larissa Gomez

Explore more on the Attitude of Gratitude Subpage

Appreciative Gratitude

Appreciative gratitude is being grateful for something, usually while in the presence of it.

In a sea of stimulation, you are able to pick out the good things and be grateful for them.

Michelle works at the welcome center of a botanical garden. Usually, she is running late for work and power walks past the flowers without stopping to look at anything. One day, she decides to leave her house early so she can stop and appreciate the place she works as a reminder to why she loves her job.

Harry had the perfect beach day planned for his family. They woke up early, drove for hours, and finally arrived at the beach. Once at the beach, they discovered they forgot sunscreen, it was windy, and the beach was covered in biting sand fleas. A man on the beach was selling kites to fly in the wind. Harry bought one and expressed a deep and genuine ‘thank you’ to the man for spreading joy on a windy day.

After immigrating to New York, Maria and her family had a challenging time. With very little money, they would often spend days off taking long walks around the city to kill time. One day, her son found a toy racecar on the sidewalk and it was the best day ever for him. In that moment, Maria felt immense gratitude for her son’s innocence and joyful outlook on life and she appreciated how her hard work in moving would benefit his life in the future.

The more we notice in the moment, the more we get into the habit of being grateful in every moment, so appreciative gratitude is often the first step in developing a grateful mindset.

What do you notice in your life you can be grateful for?
When you say thank you, do you mean it?
What feelings do you notice?

Additionally, noticing whether our gratitude is sincere or not will help transform our mindset into one of genuine gratitude.

Brother David Steindl-Rast on Gratefulness – Stop. Look. Go.
Brother David Steindl-Rast explains how to build moments of appreciation into your daily routine with Stop. Look (appreciate). Go.

Explore more on the Notice Subpage

Specific Gratitude

Practicing specific gratitude involves being able to recall specific things, people, or events and reactively have gratitude for them. While the stimulation/event may not be in front of you at this moment, you can direct your attention to something specific you are grateful for.

At the end of the week, Sarah sits down to write 5 things in her gratitude journal. Usually, she is able to quickly think of 3 things she is grateful for, and has to reflect a bit more to get to 5. As the weeks pass, she notices the 5 things come quicker to her and she sometimes even has more than 5 things to write about.

John has chronic back pain. He starts going to a new chiropractor and doesn’t think anything is working. One day he gets out of bed and his back doesn’t hurt, but he doesn’t notice. Later that day, his wife asks him how his back is and he realizes he isn’t in any pain today. Now, John wakes up and celebrates each day his back doesn’t hurt, and he doesn’t take the absence of pain for granted.

Every night before dinner, the Smith family goes around the table and shares one thing they are grateful for. Sometimes, all that comes out are things like “I’m grateful for Snickers because they are delicious.” And sometimes the sharing is deeper and more vulnerable, like “I’m grateful my family is healthy and safe during the pandemic.” No matter the size of the sharing, the moment is celebrated.

Try it!

Writing in a gratitude journal is the most common technique for practicing specific gratitude.

Every week, spend 10 minutes writing 5 things you are grateful for that happened in the past week.

Research shows having a weekly practice of specific gratitude can boost happiness by up to 25% and decrease detrimental emotions like envy by 10%. And, it was found people who write down gratitude weekly exercise up to 1.5 hours more and sleep 7% longer on average compared to the control group, contributing to overall physical health and well-being (Emmons & McCullough, 2003).

For more on journaling, check out:

Robert Emmons: Cultivating Gratitude
Gratitude expert Robert Emmons offers some tools for cultivating the habit of gratitude. It takes time to cultivate an Attitude of Gratitude, and the best way to get there is to PRACTICE.

Explore more on the Notice Subpage

Gratitude in Adversity

“We cannot be grateful for all that a given moment brings us; yet, in any given moment, we can be grateful for something. The gift within the gift of any given moment is opportunity.” ~ Br. David Steindl-Rast

Recently, Jane’s father passed away. Jane thinks back to the time she spent with her father over the years, and while there were some challenging times, there were many joyful times. Jane feels gratitude she got to spend so much time with her father and appreciates the influence he had on her life, while still holding grief for his passing.

Eli was diagnosed with a serious illness a month ago. There is a chance he will recover, and there is a chance the illness will be terminal. Eli savors the days he can spend with his wife and children and feels grateful to have some time to prepare them for the future.

An important relationship just ended and Megan found herself without a place to live. Megan’s friends came to the rescue and offered her temporary lodging while she searched for a new place. While she is heartbroken, Megan feels grateful for her support system of friends for having her back and she has a positive outlook on what the future may hold.

Gratitude and… suffering??

For more on choosing gratitude in the face of suffering, check out: Tonglen

Tonglen is a type of Buddhist meditation involving visualization of taking in pain and sending out good — finding gratitude within the pain and radiating goodness into the world.

Pema Chödrön: Tonglen Meditation
Pema Chödrön explains Tonglen and invites us to take a moment to breathe. Chödrön is widely known for her insightful, down-to-earth interpretation of Tibetan Buddhism for Western audiences.

Explore more on the Tonglen page


When you are sick, it is easy to complain, be miserable, and dwell in yucky feelings, however how often do you wake up and celebrate being healthy? Savoring means living in the positive moments and celebrating rather than waiting for sickness and complaining.

Caitlin woke up early and took a walk in nature before going to work. All day at her desk, Caitlin feels refreshed and energized. Throughout the day, she savors connecting with nature and taking some time for herself to reflect and reset.

George books accommodations for a trip and when he gets there he is surprised to find there is no cell reception and no wifi. George is forced to spend the week disconnected from his phone and spending quality time with the people he is with. When he returns from the trip, he savors the love he feels from reconnecting with loved ones and he appreciates how much he takes wifi for granted everyday.

Usually Susan’s mornings are hectic, but today she took a minute to sit outside and drink her coffee. Using her senses she smells the coffee, feels the warmth of the mug, hears the sounds of the neighborhood waking up and she appreciates a small moment of peace before the day really starts. That peace follows her throughout the day and she enters spaces with a clear head.

Finding the positive in everyday mundane moments can lead to a more fulfilling everyday life.

A Grateful Day with Brother David Steindl-Rast –
Savor moments in everyday life with this film showing the beauty of nature and life on Earth, narrated by gratitude expert Brother David Steindl-Rast.

Explore more on the Feel Subpage

Gratitude and Others

Gratitude expert and researcher Robert Emmons says gratitude has two main components:

  1. Affirmation of goodness
  2. Acknowledgement of the role other people play in bringing goodness into our life (Emmons, 2022).

Gratitude relating to others can be split into two categories: gratitude TO others and gratitude FOR others.

Appreciation for actions/things (Gratitude TO Others)
In the moment, I can be grateful for people around me and the actions/goodness they bring into my life.

You come home to your apartment with hands full of groceries and a stranger waits and holds the door open for you.
Your response: “It was kind of you to take a minute to wait for me, thank you!”

You and a peer are working on a project together. They spend some time at home thinking about the problem and come in the next day with a great solution that you are both excited about.
Your response: “I appreciate the dedication you put into this project, thank you for your hard work and creativity!”

You recently got a promotion and a colleague celebrates with you and gives you a small gift.
Your response: “Thank you for the gift, I felt joy in sharing that moment with you. You have been so encouraging and I really feel like I belong here.”

Gratitude for the person specifically (Gratitude FOR others)

In listing things I am grateful for, I recall people that have served me in the past and I am grateful that person exists in my life. For example, close friends and family who may not have done actions towards you recently but whom you are grateful to have around.

You took a risk and started a small business while your partner works hard to keep a steady income.
Your reflection: “I am grateful to my partner for supporting my dreams and working so hard for our family.”

A teacher believed in you and encouraged you to try your best, and that made an impact on where you are today.
Your reflection: “I am grateful to Mrs. Teacher for seeing me and encouraging me when I didn’t think anyone cared.”

You are faced with a trauma/challenge (breakup, illness, job loss) and you know you have at least three people you can call to help you.
Your reflection: “I am grateful to have such a reliable friend group/support system around me.”

The methods of expressing gratitude (verbal, concrete, connective) most come into play when there are other people involved. When we are grateful to a friend for something they did we are likely to tell them verbally, reciprocate with a gift, or offer an act of service.

“At times, our own light goes out and is rekindled by a spark from another person. Each of us has cause to think with deep gratitude of those who have lit the flame within us.” — Albert Schweitzer

Putting the “You” in Thank You, with Dr. Sara Algoe

Gratitude stands out above other positive psychology practices because we are able to bring other people into our expressions and associate something someone else did for us with the feelings we are experiencing.

There are two parts of feeling and expressing gratitude:

  • How the gift action benefits the receiver
  • How the giver did something praiseworthy.

Gratitude Researcher Sara Algoe says one thing we can do to make gratitude impactful is to put the “YOU” back into thank you. Dr. Algoe says genuine expressions of gratitude acknowledge the part the giver had in the interaction rather than just the benefits the receiver feels.

In receiving a pair of socks we can talk about how warm and stylish the socks are, AND we can talk about how considerate the other person is in thinking of us when they found these socks and having the nice thought to buy them for us.


  • Gratitude is expressed to others in one of three ways: saying ‘thank you’ (verbal), giving a gift (concrete), or offering an action/act of service (connective).
  • An individual’s cultural background will change their experience and expression of gratitude.
  • The sea of gratitude can be broken down into specific types of practices:
    • Attitude of Gratitude
    • Appreciative Gratitude
    • Specific Gratitude
    • Savoring
    • Gratitude for specific people
    • Appreciation for the actions of others
  • Knowing which type of gratitude we are practicing can help strengthen and deepen our understanding and way of being when it comes to gratitude, as one type can often lead to another.

Gratitude Types of Gratitude Attitude of Gratitude Notice Feel Think Do Science of Gratitude Illusions of Gratitude The Gist Gratitude Practice & Exercises Gratitude Resources


  1. Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 377–389.
  2. Emmons, R. A. (2007). Thanks!: How the New Science of Gratitude Can Make You Happier (Annotated edition). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  3. Floyd, S., Rossi, G., Baranova, J., Blythe, J., Dingemanse, M., Kendrick, K. H., Zinken, J., & Enfield, N. J. (2018). Universals and cultural diversity in the expression of gratitude. Royal Society Open Science, 5(5), 180391.
  4. Mendonça, S. E., Merçon-Vargas, E. A., Payir, A., & Tudge, J. R. H. (2018). The Development of Gratitude in Seven Societies: Cross-Cultural Highlights. Cross-Cultural Research, 52(1), 135–150.
  5. Singh, D. (2015, June 8). ‘Thank You’ in Hindi and English Mean Very Different Things. The Atlantic.
  6. Smith, J. A., Newman, K. M., Marsh, J., & Keltner, D. (Eds.). (2020). The Gratitude Project: How the science of thankfulness can rewire our brains for resilience, optimism, and the greater good. New Harbinger Publications.